Thousands of prisoners are serving life without parole for nonviolent crimes. Judge John Gleeson, of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York, who is neither naive nor sentimental (as a prosecutor, he sent mobster John Gotti to die in a supermax prison), knows that most defendants who plead guilty are guilty. He is, however, dismayed at the use of the threat of mandatory minimums as "sledgehammers" to extort guilty pleas, effectively vitiating the right to a trial.
Ninety-seven percent of federal convictions are without trials, sparing the government the burden of proving guilt beyond a reasonable doubt. Mere probable cause, and the meager presentation required for a grand jury indictment, suffices. "Judging is removed," Gleeson says, "prosecutors become sentencers." And when threats of draconian sentences compel guilty pleas, "some innocent people will plead guilty."
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